• 1.

    Gordon, A. L. Deep Antarctic convection west of Maud Rise. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 8, 600–612 (1978).

  • 2.

    Martinson, D. G., Killworth, P. D. & Gordon, A. L. A convective model for the Weddell Polynya. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 11, 466–488 (1981).

  • 3.

    Martinson, D. G. Evolution of the Southern Ocean winter mixed layer and sea ice: Open ocean deepwater formation and ventilation. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11641–11654 (1990).

  • 4.

    Zanowski, H., Hallberg, R. & Sarmiento, J. L. Abyssal ocean warming and salinification after Weddell polynyas in the GFDL CM2G coupled climate model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 45, 2755–2772 (2015).

  • 5.

    Martin, T., Park, W. & Latif, M. Multi-centennial variability controlled by Southern Ocean convection in the Kiel Climate Model. Clim. Dyn. 40, 2005–2022 (2013).

  • 6.

    Cheon, W. G., Park, Y.-G., Toggweiler, J. R. & Lee, S.-K. The relationship of Weddell Polynya and open-ocean deep convection to the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 44, 694–713 (2014).

  • 7.

    Heuzé, C., Ridley, J. K., Calvert, D., Stevens, D. P. & Heywood, K. J. Increasing vertical mixing to reduce Southern Ocean deep convection in NEMO3.4. Geosci. Model Dev. 8, 3119–3130 (2015).

  • 8.

    Behrens, E. et al. Southern Ocean deep convection in global climate models: A driver for variability of subpolar gyres and Drake Passage transport on decadal timescales. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121, 3905–3925 (2016).

  • 9.

    Pedro, J. B. et al. Southern Ocean deep convection as a driver of Antarctic warming events. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2192–2199 (2016).

  • 10.

    Zhang, L., Delworth, T. L., Cooke, W. & Yang, X. Natural variability of Southern Ocean convection as a driver of observed climate trends. Nat. Clim. Change 9, 59–65 (2019).

  • 11.

    Bernardello, R., Marinov, I., Palter, J. B., Galbraith, E. D. & Sarmiento, J. L. Impact of Weddell Sea deep convection on natural and anthropogenic carbon in a climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7262–7269 (2014).

  • 12.

    Resplandy, L., Séférian, R. & Bopp, L. Natural variability of CO2 and O2 fluxes: what can we learn from centuries-long climate models simulations? J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 384–404 (2015).

  • 13.

    Moore, G. W. K., Alverson, K. & Renfrew, I. A. A reconstruction of the air–sea interaction associated with the Weddell polynya. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32, 1685–1698 (2002).

  • 14.

    Weijer, W. et al. Local atmospheric response to an open-ocean polynya in a high-resolution climate model. J. Clim. 30, 1629–1641 (2017).

  • 15.

    Cabré, A., Marinov, I. & Gnanadesikan, A. Global atmospheric teleconnections and multidecadal climate oscillations driven by Southern Ocean convection. J. Clim. 30, 8107–8126 (2017).

  • 16.

    Amblas, D. & Dowdeswell, J. A. Physiographic influences on dense shelf-water cascading down the Antarctic continental slope. Earth Sci. Rev. 185, 887–900 (2018).

  • 17.

    Smith, J. A., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Pudsey, C. J., Allen, C. S. & Graham, A. G. C. The presence of polynyas in the Weddell Sea during the Last Glacial Period with implications for the reconstruction of sea-ice limits and ice sheet history. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 296, 287–298 (2010).

  • 18.

    Broecker, W. S., Sutherland, S. & Peng, T.-H. A possible 20th-century slowdown of Southern Ocean deep water formation. Science 286, 1132–1135 (1999).

  • 19.

    de Lavergne, C., Palter, J. B., Galbraith, E. D., Bernardello, R. & Marinov, I. Cessation of deep convection in the open Southern Ocean under anthropogenic climate change. Nat. Clim. Change 4, 278–282 (2014).

  • 20.

    Heuzé, C., Heywood, K. J., Stevens, D. P. & Ridley, J. K. Southern Ocean bottom water characteristics in CMIP5 models. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 1409–1414 (2013).

  • 21.

    Kjellsson, J. et al. Model sensitivity of the Weddell and Ross seas, Antarctica, to vertical mixing and freshwater forcing. Ocean Model. 94, 141–152 (2015).

  • 22.

    Reintges, A., Martin, T., Latif, M. & Park, W. Physical controls of Southern Ocean deep-convection variability in CMIP5 models and the Kiel Climate Model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 6951–6958 (2017).

  • 23.

    Comiso, J. C. & Gordon, A. L. Recurring polynyas over the Cosmonaut Sea and the Maud Rise. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2819–2833 (1987).

  • 24.

    Carsey, F. D. Microwave observation of the Weddell polynya. Mon. Weath. Rev. 108, 2032–2044 (1980).

  • 25.

    Lindsay, R. W., Holland, D. M. & Woodgate, R. A. Halo of low ice concentration observed over the Maud Rise seamount. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L13302 (2004).

  • 26.

    Swart, S. et al. Return of the Maud Rise polynya: climate litmus or sea ice anomaly? [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 99, S188–S189 (2018).

  • 27.

    Wang, G. et al. Compounding tropical and stratospheric forcing of the record low Antarctic sea-ice in 2016. Nat. Commun. 10, 13 (2019).

  • 28.

    Meehl, G. A. et al. Sustained ocean changes contributed to sudden Antarctic sea ice retreat in late 2016. Nat. Commun. 10, 14 (2019).

  • 29.

    Gordon, A. L. & Huber, B. A. Southern Ocean winter mixed layer. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11655–11672 (1990).

  • 30.

    Holland, D. M. Explaining the Weddell Polynya—a large ocean eddy shed at Maud Rise. Science 292, 1697–1700 (2001).

  • 31.

    de Steur, L., Holland, D. M., Muench, R. D. & McPhee, M. G. The warm-water “Halo” around Maud Rise: properties, dynamics and impact. Deep Sea Res. Part I 54, 871–896 (2007).

  • 32.

    Kurtakoti, P., Veneziani, M., Stössel, A. & Weijer, W. Preconditioning and formation of Maud Rise polynyas in a high-resolution earth system model. J. Clim. 31, 9659–9678 (2018).

  • 33.

    Wilson, E. A., Riser, S. C., Campbell, E. C. & Wong, A. P. S. Winter upper-ocean stability and ice–ocean feedbacks in the sea ice-covered Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 49, 1099–1117 (2019).

  • 34.

    Martinson, D. G. & Iannuzzi, R. A. in Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability (Antarctic Research Series) Vol. 74 (ed. Jeffries, M. O.) 243–271 (American Geophysical Union, 1998).

  • 35.

    Timmermann, R., Lemke, P. & Kottmeier, C. Formation and maintenance of a polynya in the Weddell Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 1251–1264 (1999).

  • 36.

    McPhee, M. G. Marginal thermobaric stability in the ice-covered upper ocean over Maud Rise. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 2710–2722 (2000).

  • 37.

    Itkin, P. et al. Thin ice and storms: sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122, 4661–4674 (2017).

  • 38.

    McPhee, M. G. et al. The Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 1221–1232 (1996).

  • 39.

    Våge, K. et al. Surprising return of deep convection to the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean in winter 2007–2008. Nat. Geosci. 2, 67–72 (2009).

  • 40.

    Testor, P. et al. Multiscale observations of deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during winter 2012–2013 using multiple platforms. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123, 1745–1776 (2018).

  • 41.

    Motoi, T., Ono, N. & Wakatsuchi, M. A mechanism for the formation of the Weddell Polynya in 1974. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17, 2241–2247 (1987).

  • 42.

    Mantyla, A. W. & Reid, J. L. Abyssal characteristics of the World Ocean waters. Deep-Sea Res. A 30, 805–833 (1983).

  • 43.

    Jullion, L. et al. The contribution of the Weddell Gyre to the lower limb of the Global Overturning Circulation. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119, 3357–3377 (2014).

  • 44.

    Thompson, D. W. J. et al. Signatures of the Antarctic ozone hole in Southern Hemisphere surface climate change. Nat. Geosci. 4, 741–749 (2011).

  • 45.

    Fogt, R. L., Wovrosh, A. J., Langen, R. A. & Simmonds, I. The characteristic variability and connection to the underlying synoptic activity of the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas Low. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D07111 (2012).

  • 46.

    Cheon, W. G. et al. Replicating the 1970s’ Weddell Polynya using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with reanalysis surface flux fields. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 5411–5418 (2015).

  • 47.

    Gordon, A. L., Visbeck, M. & Comiso, J. C. A possible link between the Weddell Polynya and the Southern Annular Mode. J. Clim. 20, 2558–2571 (2007).

  • 48.

    Dufour, C. O. et al. Preconditioning of the Weddell Sea polynya by the ocean mesoscale and dense water overflows. J. Clim. 30, 7719–7737 (2017).

  • 49.

    Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P. & Haug, G. H. The polar ocean and glacial cycles in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Nature 466, 47–55 (2010).

  • 50.

    Chang, E. K. M., Guo, Y. & Xia, X. CMIP5 multimodel ensemble projection of storm track change under global warming. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D23118 (2012).

  • 51.

    Muench, R. D. et al. Maud Rise revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2423–2440 (2001).

  • 52.

    Meier, W. N., Gallaher, D. & Campbell, G. G. New estimates of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extent during September 1964 from recovered Nimbus I satellite imagery. Cryosphere 7, 699–705 (2013).

  • 53.

    Parkinson, C. L., Comiso, J. C. & Zwally, H. J. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations v.1 https://doi.org/10.5067/W2PKTWMTY0TP (National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2004).

  • 54.

    Meier, W. N. et al. NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration v.3 https://doi.org/10.7265/N59P2ZTG (National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2017).

  • 55.

    Meier, W. N., Peng, G., Scott, D. J. & Savoie, M. H. Verification of a new NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea-ice concentration climate record. Polar Res. 33, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v33.21004 (2014).

  • 56.

    Meier, W. N., Fetterer, F. & Windnagel, A. K. Near-Real-Time NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration v.1 https://doi.org/10.7265/N5FF3QJ6 (National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2017).

  • 57.

    Spreen, G., Kaleschke, L. & Heygster, G. Sea ice remote sensing using AMSR-E 89-GHz channels. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 113, 1–14 (2008).

  • 58.

    Beitsch, A., Kaleschke, L. & Kern, S. Investigating high-resolution AMSR2 sea ice concentrations during the February 2013 fracture event in the Beaufort Sea. Remote Sens. 6, 3841–3856 (2014).

  • 59.

    JCOMM Expert Team on Sea Ice. Sea-Ice Nomenclature. WMO No. 259 (World Meteorological Organization, 2014).

  • 60.

    Comiso, J. C., Cavalieri, D. J., Parkinson, C. L. & Gloersen, P. Passive microwave algorithms for sea ice concentration: a comparison of two techniques. Remote Sens. Environ. 60, 357–384 (1997).

  • 61.

    Comiso, J. C. & Steffen, K. Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 31361–31385 (2001).

  • 62.

    Comiso, J. C. & Gordon, A. L. Cosmonaut polynya in the Southern Ocean: structure and variability. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101, 18297–18313 (1996).

  • 63.

    Arbetter, T. E., Lynch, A. H. & Bailey, D. A. Relationship between synoptic forcing and polynya formation in the Cosmonaut Sea: 1. Polynya climatology. J. Geophys. Res. 109, C04022 (2004).

  • 64.

    Gordon, A. L. in Elsevier Oceanography Series: Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans Vol. 57 (eds. Chu, P. C. & Gascard, J.-C.) 17–35 (Elsevier, 1991).

  • 65.

    Venegas, S. A. & Drinkwater, M. R. Sea ice, atmosphere and upper ocean variability in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16747–16765 (2001).

  • 66.

    Riser, S. C. et al. Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array. Nat. Clim. Change 6, 145–153 (2016).

  • 67.

    Riser, S. C., Swift, D. & Drucker, R. Profiling floats in SOCCOM: technical capabilities for studying the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123, 4055–4073 (2018).

  • 68.

    Klatt, O., Boebel, O. & Fahrbach, E. A profiling float’s sense of ice. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1301–1308 (2007).

  • 69.

    Wong, A. P. S. & Riser, S. C. Profiling float observations of the upper ocean under sea ice off the Wilkes Land coast of Antarctica. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 1102–1115 (2011).

  • 70.

    Carval, T. et al. Argo User’s Manual v. 3.2 (Argo, 2017).

  • 71.

    Chamberlain, P. M. et al. Observing the ice-covered Weddell Gyre with profiling floats: position uncertainties and correlation statistics. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123, 8383–8410 (2018).

  • 72.

    Meredith, M. P. et al. Circulation, retention, and mixing of waters within the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean: The role of stratified Taylor columns. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 547–562 (2015).

  • 73.

    Talley, L. D. et al. Southern Ocean biogeochemical float deployment strategy, with example from the Greenwich Meridian line (GO-SHIP A12). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 124, 403–431 (2019).

  • 74.

    Johnson, K. S. et al. Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Float Data Archive – Snapshot 2018-12-31, https://doi.org/10.6075/J02J6968 (UC San Diego, 2019).

  • 75.

    Drucker, R. & Riser, S. C. In situ phase-domain calibration of oxygen Optodes on profiling floats. Methods Oceanogr. 17, 296–318 (2016).

  • 76.

    Johnson, K. S. et al. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122, 6416–6436 (2017).

  • 77.

    Boyer, T. P. et al. World Ocean Database 2018. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 87 (NOAA, 2018).

  • 78.

    Roquet, F. et al. A Southern Indian Ocean database of hydrographic profiles obtained with instrumented elephant seals. Sci. Data 1, 140028 (2014).

  • 79.

    Boehme, L. et al. Animal-borne CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers for real-time oceanographic data collection. Ocean Sci. 5, 685–695 (2009).

  • 80.

    Siegelman, L. et al. Correction and accuracy of high- and low-resolution CTD data from animal-borne instruments. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 36, 745–760 (2019).

  • 81.

    de Boyer Montégut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A. S., Lazar, A. & Iudicone, D. Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: an examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology. J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12003 (2004).

  • 82.

    Dong, S., Sprintall, J., Gille, S. T. & Talley, L. Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth from Argo float profiles. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C06013 (2008).

  • 83.

    Marshall, J. & Schott, F. Open-ocean convection: observations, theory, and models. Rev. Geophys. 37, 1–64 (1999).

  • 84.

    Margirier, F. et al. Characterization of convective plumes associated with oceanic deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean from high-resolution in situ data collected by gliders. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122, 9814–9826 (2017).

  • 85.

    Haumann, F. A., Gruber, N., Münnich, M., Frenger, I. & Kern, S. Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends. Nature 537, 89–92 (2016).

  • 86.

    Charrassin, J.-B. et al. Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 11634–11639 (2008).

  • 87.

    Bailey, D. A., Rhines, P. B. & Häkkinen, S. Formation and pathways of North Atlantic Deep Water in a coupled ice–ocean model of the Arctic–North Atlantic Oceans. Clim. Dyn. 25, 497–516 (2005).

  • 88.

    Frajka-Williams, E., Rhines, P. B. & Eriksen, C. C. Horizontal stratification during deep convection in the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 44, 220–228 (2014).

  • 89.

    Pellichero, V., Sallée, J.-B., Schmidtko, S., Roquet, F. & Charrassin, J.-B. The ocean mixed layer under Southern Ocean sea-ice: seasonal cycle and forcing. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122, 1608–1633 (2017).

  • 90.

    Talley, L. D., Pickard, G. L., Emery, W. J. & Swift, J. H. Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction Ch. 7, 187–222 (Elsevier, 2011).

  • 91.

    Gouretski, V. World Ocean Circulation Experiment – Argo Global Hydrographic Climatology. Ocean Sci. 14, 1127–1146 (2018).

  • 92.

    Fahrbach, E. et al. Warming of deep and abyssal water masses along the Greenwich meridian on decadal time scales: the Weddell gyre as a heat buffer. Deep Sea Res. Part II 58, 2509–2523 (2011).

  • 93.

    Ryan, S., Schröder, M., Huhn, O. & Timmermann, R. On the warm inflow at the eastern boundary of the Weddell Gyre. Deep Sea Res. Part I 107, 70–81 (2016).

  • 94.

    Smedsrud, L. H. Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea along the Greenwich meridian: 1977–2001. Deep Sea Res. Part I 52, 241–258 (2005).

  • 95.

    Fahrbach, E., Hoppema, M., Rohardt, G., Schröder, M. & Wisotzki, A. Causes of deep-water variation: comment on the paper by L.H. Smedsrud “Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea along the Greenwich meridian: 1977–2001”. Deep Sea Res. Part I 53, 574–577 (2006).

  • 96.

    Gordon, A. L. Weddell Deep Water variability. J. Mar. Res. 40, 199–217 (1982).

  • 97.

    Zanowski, H. & Hallberg, R. Weddell Polynya transport mechanisms in the abyssal ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 47, 2907–2925 (2017).

  • 98.

    Marshall, G. J. Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses. J. Clim. 16, 4134–4143 (2003).

  • 99.

    Dee, D. P. et al. The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 553–597 (2011).

  • 100.

    Sumata, H. et al. An intercomparison of Arctic ice drift products to deduce uncertainty estimates. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119, 4887–4921 (2014).

  • 101.

    Martinson, D. G. & Wamser, C. Ice drift and momentum exchange in winter Antarctic pack ice. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1741–1755 (1990).

  • 102.

    Wang, Z., Turner, J., Sun, B., Li, B. & Liu, C. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions. Sci. Rep. 4, 5317 (2015).

  • 103.

    Kottmeier, C. & Sellmann, L. Atmospheric and oceanic forcing of Weddell Sea ice motion. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101, 20809–20824 (1996).

  • 104.

    Fairall, C. W., Bradley, E. F., Rogers, D. P., Edson, J. B. & Young, G. S. Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101, 3747–3764 (1996).

  • 105.

    Renfrew, I. A., Moore, G. W. K., Guest, P. S. & Bumke, K. A comparison of surface layer and surface turbulent flux observations over the Labrador Sea with ECMWF analyses and NCEP reanalyses. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32, 383–400 (2002).

  • 106.

    Holland, P. R. & Kwok, R. Wind-driven trends in Antarctic sea-ice drift. Nat. Geosci. 5, 872–875 (2012).

  • 107.

    Jullion, L., Jones, S. C., Naveira Garabato, A. C. & Meredith, M. P. Wind-controlled export of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Weddell Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L09609 (2010).

  • 108.

    Meijers, A. J. S. et al. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121, 7530–7546 (2016).

  • 109.

    Armitage, T. W. K., Kwok, R., Thompson, A. F. & Cunningham, G. Dynamic topography and sea level anomalies of the Southern Ocean: variability and teleconnections. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123, 613–630 (2018).

  • 110.

    Turner, J. et al. The SCAR READER project: toward a high-quality database of mean Antarctic meteorological observations. J. Clim. 17, 2890–2898 (2004).

  • 111.

    Smith, A., Lott, N. & Vose, R. The Integrated Surface Database: recent developments and partnerships. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 704–708 (2011).

  • 112.

    Bracegirdle, T. J. Climatology and recent increase of westerly winds over the Amundsen Sea derived from six reanalyses. Int. J. Climatol. 33, 843–851 (2013).

  • 113.

    Patoux, J., Yuan, X. & Li, C. Satellite-based midlatitude cyclone statistics over the Southern Ocean: 1. Scatterometer-derived pressure fields and storm tracking. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D04105 (2009).

  • 114.

    Amante, C. & Eakins, B. W. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24 (National Geophysical Data Center, 2009) https://doi.org/10.7289/V5C8276M.

  • Article credit to: http://feeds.nature.com/~r/nature/rss/current/~3/V6iKnehibig/s41586-019-1294-0

    Similar Posts

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *